The Road to Revolution by Ho Chi Minh, translated by VietAnon
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\section{Communist Women's International}
\subsection{Why was the Communist Women's International founded?}
Mr. Marx said: \enquote{Anybody who knows anything of history knows that great social changes are impossible without the feminine ferment. Social progress can be measured exactly by the social position of the \enquote{fair sex}.}
Mr. Lenin said: \enquote{If we do not draw women into public activity, into the militia, into political life; if we do not tear women away from the deadening atmosphere of household and kitchen; then it is impossible to secure real freedom, it is impossible even to build democracy, let alone socialism.}\rfootnote{I can’t find any quote that follow the strict meaning so this is the closest, the original full sentence in Vietnamese is: \enquote{A true revolutionary vanguard party must draw household women into political activities, only in that way will the revolution succeed.}}
Those words are not just fluffy puffed up words.
There has never been a time in the history of revolutions where women and girls did not participate. The French Revolutionary Army had people like the student Charlotte Corday pulling out a knife and killing the Jacobin that abused his power, like Louise Michel, who came out to help organize the Paris Commune. During the Russian Revolution, women volunteered to join the army; statistically, the women's revolutionary guard divisions had 1,854 casualties. Now, one of the reasons why the Russian revolution was so successful in such a rapid pace, standing so tall, was because the women giving their all in that effort. Therefore, in order for the world revolution to succeed, it is necessary to mobilize the working women from all over the world.
Therefore the Communist Women's International was born.
\subsection{What is the history behind the Communist Women's International?}
In 1910, Mrs. Clara Zetkin (German communist) proposed in the Second International Congress that: every year on March 8, we should make a commenmorative day called \enquote{International Women's Day}. After that one date was changed to a week. The slogan for that week was: \enquote{demanding women's suffrage}.
In 1917, on February 23, women in the Russian capital shouted \enquote{Bring us bread for our children!} and demanding \enquote{Bring back our husbands!} (because the husband had to go to war). This violence was the spark that fueled the Russian revolution.
On March 8, 1920, the Third International sent Madame Zetkin to organize the Communist Women's International. The slogan is: \enquote{Working women must unite with the Third International for the world revolution}.
In 1923, Russian women celebrated \enquote{March 8} and opened 66 childcare homes, 36 childcare centers, 18 foster homes, 22 hospitals and nursing homes, 15 maternity wards, and 15 communal kitchens for 10,000 people; 27 cooperatives employing 1,300 working women, 11 parks and homes for the sick.
\subsection{How is Communist Women's International organized?}
The rules and program are roughly the same as the Third International. But this section only specializes in education, organization and training of women and girls, and helps in educating children of workers and peasants.
Each communist party must have a section representing of women, directly under the command of the Communist Women's International. All women party members must follow the international’ directives, no matter how hard or dangerous the mission, they must do it. For example: party member A is not a worker, but when the International told her to apply for a job in a factory in order to mobilize women there, she would have to quit her old job and go to work in that factory.
In short, the rules are very strict, the actions are united, and the work is also very difficult. Most women in our country still have conservative ideas. However, because everyone is wholehearted in the mission, the work progresses quickly. Thanks to the Communist Women's International, newly formed communist parties like the one in Java had the number of women party members increasing day by day.
The An Nam revolution must also have the participation of women to succeed, and any Annam woman who wants revolution must follow the guidance of the Communist Women's International.
\section{Red International of Labor Unions}
\subsection{What is the history of the International Worker Labor Unions?}
First, we must know through the history of workers' movement, then we will talk about the history of the Red International of Labor Unions.
The history of worker movement is divided into 3 periods:
a) Before the European war, b) During the European war, c) After the European war.
a) Before the European War: there were about 16 million organized workers in Europe and the United States and an association called the \enquote{International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres}. But those 16 million people did not join the \enquote{International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres}. because the organized workers were divided into many factions:
\item British and American trade unions only care about improving workers’ lives, but no mentioning of overthrowing capital.
\item Anarchist unions of Latin countries, did not want to form political parties.
\item The reformist factions only advocated for trade unions to support political parties, rather than working in tandem or merging with the political party.
\item Neutralism holds that workers are not the basis of revolutions.
\item The Communists, with the political line of overthrowing capital and using workers as the revolutionary foundation, proposed that a political party to lead the trade unions in a revolution was a must.
Because of their muddled purpose and inconsistent directions, the Secretariat had no force.
b) When Europe was at war: this association followed the Second International, mean all countries' unions supporting the capitalist of their country.
Not to mention, even with \enquote{international} in their name, the association only represented European and American workers, while Asian, African and Australian workers weren’t members.
c) After the European war: partly, because of the workers suffering, and the success of the Russian revolution, labor unions grew bigger and bigger. For example:
From 1913 In 1919
England grew from only 4,000,000 people to 8,000,000
France grew from only 1,000,000 people to 2,500,000
All countries: from 15,000,000 people to 50,000,000 people
Associations in Asia - East also established trade unions at a rapid pace (in China, Japan, India, Java, Philippines, etc.).
\subsection{What was the result of that movement?}
Capitalists of all countries saw that the workers were prosperous, this struck fear into them, and they sought to calm them down. In 1919, there was a congress in the US capital, to solve the problems of workers in the world. In that association there are representatives of Governments, capitalists, and national labor unions.
But it only had the Second International to represent the workers. The countries where prosperous workers had won the 8 hours workday (such as Britain and France), the Government delegate of those countries asked the other countries to also use 8 hours as a common practice (for fear that the capital of the other country would outcompete their capital) as well.
After capitalists had formed the League of Nations, they also established their own international labor union, called the International Labour Organization, with 12 representatives for governments, 6 representatives for capitalits, and 6 representatives for workers. They even boldly accept strikebreakers and scabs to be the workers' representatives!
\subsection{When the capitalists did this, how did workers in other countries act in response?}
Workers had 31 international unions.
29 of them were trade international unions, that is, any profession having its own international; one of the internationals is called the Amsterdam International or \enquote{yellow} International and the other opposing it is the Red International.
The international trade unions has a long history, with about 20,000,000 members. Among those 29 internationals, the iron industry is the biggest (3,000,000 people); the second is the coal industry (2,500,000 people); third are factory workers (2,300,000 people), etc.
During the European war, those internationals were also dissolved, after the war they were reformed, but because of the opportunists in power, their work was ineffectual. Like in 1921, 1,000,000 British coal miners went on strike, because the US, German and other coal miners did not help they were defeated. In 1922, 500,000 American coal miners went on strike, but also because no one was willing to help they also failed. In short, these \enquote{internationals} were in name only.
\subsection{Why is the Amsterdam International called \enquote{yellow}?}
Because that International was established in Amsterdam (capital of Holland). In the new language, yellow is the color of counter\-/revolution; red is the color of revolution.
In 1919, the Union representatives of the Secretariat convened in Amsterdam to form this international. At the beginning, the membership was widespead, but after many unions joined the \enquote{Red} International, now there are only 23 associations left, with 14,400,000 members.
This international followed the reformists of the Second International to make peace with capital, and did many counter\-/revolutionary acts such as:
\item Approving the Treaty of Versailles of the imperialists, forcing Germany to pay 400,000,000 dong in reparations.
\item When Germany could not bear it, the US set up a plan (called the Dawes plan) to make Germany pay 132,000,000,000 dong. The plan made German workers and peasants into essentially slaves. Yet the Amsterdam International also agreed.
\item Barring the Russian labor unions from joining.
\item They vehemently oppose communists, yet they treat the fascists with peace.
\subsection{Why is it called the Red International of Labor Unions?}
The yellow International made peace with capital, so the revolutionary workers sought to establish another international.
In July of 1920, a few British, Italian, French, Spanish and Russian workers set up a propaganda agency. In 1921, there were many unions leaving the other side to their side. On July 3rd of that year, the Red International of Labor Unions was established.
The Red International followed the Third International, determined to continue class struggle.
Now there 47 countries' unions have joined, with 11,750,000 members.
In May 1925, the Asia-East side had these labor unions:
\item China: 450,000 members;
\item Java: 35,000 members;
\item Japan: 32,000 members;
\item Goryeo: 5,000 members;
\item Mongolia: 5,000 members;
\item Turkey: 20,000 members;
\item Annam: 000.
\subsection{How does this red international relate to the revolution of Annam?}
In the yellow International, there are no Asian - Eastern associations, while in the Red International, there are 8 colonial associations.
When the Javanese and Indian workers went on strike, the Red International did their best to help, while the Yellow International did not even pay attention.
In China, Shanghai workers went on strike for more than three months, Hong Kong went on strike for more than a year and a half, the Red International helped with their fundings, sent delegates to encourage, and called for the unions of other countries to help. On the other hand, the yellow International only printed a few leaflets and then kept silent.
If the Annamese workers knew how to organize, the Red International would wholeheartedly help in staging the revolution. But if you want people to help you, you have to help yourself first.
\section{Young Communist International}
\subsection{What is the Young Communist International?}
Formerly all socialist parties had a youth wing. When these parties combined to form the Second International, they also organize an international youth society. During the European war, most of the Second International made peace with capital, and many young people also imitated this agreement.
The young revolutionaries who left those associations were like Lenin and the real revolutionaries that left the Second International.
In November of 1919, the young revolutionaries of 14 European countries gathered in the German capital (Berlin) to establish the Young Communist International.
In 1921, there were young people from 43 countries following in.
In 1922 there were 60 countries, with 760,000 members.
In 1924 there were more than 1,000,000 (not counting the Russian youths).
\subsection{How is it organized?}
Roughly the same way as the Third International. Youths from different countries open congresses and appoint representatives; the representatives of the international have the right to command, and the youth of all countries must necessarily follow the plans and orders of that representative.
Anyone approximately 16 to 20 years old can join the Association.
Before the Association let them in, they have to prove themselves, workers and soldiers will take 6 months, students will take a year to work before they can join.
The purpose of Young Communist International is:
\item World revolution;
\item Fostering talents to contribute to the Communist Party;
\item Exercising in economics and politics, communicating with the youths;
\item Propaganda, organize and train young workers, farmers, students and soldiers;
\item Opposing superstition and advocating for education.
\subsection{How do they work?}
Some are public, as in Russia, in other countries some are operating semi-secretly, as in European countries and America. In other places it is secret like in Goryeo, Java, etc.
Propaganda and organization are according to different circumstances. Sending people to infiltrate the army, or work as workers, or do farmwork, or go to school to propagate and recruit comrades. When few comrades are found, a new branch needed to be set up. Other than that, it is possible to set up a study groups, a football associations, or hobby association to select comrades and propagandize.
In short, they did everything they could to get close to the people.
\subsection{How does the Young Communist International work with the Communist Party?}
Those two organizations treat each other in a democratic way, meaning, whenever the party has something to discuss, there is a youth delegate to attend the meeting. When youth international have something discuss, the party has delegates to attend the meeting. In political directions, young people follow the party's leadership, but young people are independent for working praxis. If the party and the youth have disagreements, it is arbitrated by the two internationals.
Communist youth worked very hard and sacrificed everything for the revolution.
In 1921, the German Youth had only 27,000 people and the US had only 4 branches. But by 1922, Germany had 70,000 people and the US had 150 branches.
When French soldiers were stationed in Germany, for propagandizing against imperialism in the army, 120 young French men were imprisoned. When the French attacked Morocco, because of the same actins, more than 3,000 French youths were arrested.
The student strikes in China, the campaigns in Goryeo, the strike in the UK, etc., Communist Youth all led the charge.
Today, every country has communist youth organs.
But not Annam!
\section{Workers' International Relief}
\subsection{What is the Workers' International Relief?}
In 1921, Russia suffered a great drought, and many people starved to death. The imperialists took advantage of that opportunity. One side wanted to incite the Russian people to rebel, while the other side wanted to send in troops to crush Russia's revolution. To do so, they brought warships to blockade the Russian sea, preventing ships from carrying food to sell to the Russian people.
Kind-hearted people like Mr. Nansen (a very famous scientist in Norway, who flew across the North Pole), and labor unions organized relief societies to collect money, food, and clothes to send to the Russian people. But because the organization was scattered, so the strength was lacking.
The Third International and the Red International of Labor Unions (newly organized) initiated an International Help Association, to gather all relief relief efforts. The Second International and the yellow International Workers vehemently refused to enter, and set up a separate relief association.
Against this obstacle, the Workers International Relief was established. From the end of 1921 to 1922, this International raised more than 5,000,000 silver coins and 40,000,000 kilos of food for the Russian people.
\subsection{When Russia was not hungry any more, what did this International do?}
When Russia was no longer hungry, this International continued to work forever more. Wherever there is a disaster in any country, this International would try its best to help. Like in 1923, Ireland lost its harvest, tens of thousands of people had no food, no clothes to wear. Thanks to the International's help, they did not starve to death.
In 1924, German workers went on strike with more than 60,000 people. This International set up a communal kitchens for free, every day more than 25,000 workers came to eat. As well as establishing a hospital to help sick strikers; building foster homes for children of workers, set up caravans to bring German children to the labor unions of neightbor countries for education only returned them when the strike was near.
The year Japan had an earthquake, China got flooded, this International also brought food, clothing and building materials to help.
In short, anywhere that is disaster stricken, this International will help.
\subsection{Where does the International Relief get money?}
This International is not like an association that distributes and gives charities from capitalists. The purpose of this International is for \enquote{the workers and peasants in the world are brothers, when the brothers of one country are in trouble, the brothers of the other country must help}, so where they are needed, the members do their best to gather contributions, where there are peace, members must contribute the fees. The membership fee depends on the class of people such as workers who make more money would give more, farmers with less money would give less. But everyone has to contribute.
Because the International has branches across all 5 continents, and the membership are very large, especially in Russia, so just the membership fees alone is quite a lot.
The international community brings that money to produce profits, such as opening a agricultural business, working film theaters, opening a trading house, fishing guilds, etc. Most of these activities are in Russia. Only one fishing guild in Astrakhan harvested 4-5 million kilos of fish a year.
All the money sold is used to help the world.
\subsection{What is the use of this International for our revolution?}
Like Annam encountered disasters with the dyke system collapse recently, or during the great droughts and floods. If the International knew, it would help. However:
\item It is because our people have not yet known of them to cry out for help;
\item The French fear of the International making our people know how to be in solidarity among the proletariat of the world;
\item The French is afraid of revolutionary propaganda, so it tries with all their might to hide from our people that there is such an association in the world and prevents the International from reaching Annam.
Whatever the French hates, it is all beneficial to Annam.
As for the revolution, this International also helped a lot. It seems that when the Russian people were starving, thanks to this International, there was no resentment against the Revolutionary Government. Thanks to this International, Japanese workers can quickly restore their labor unions. German workers, thanks to this International, can continue to struggle, and so on. Because of this, the International will be of great benefit to Annam's revolution.
\section{International Red Aid}
\subsection{What is the International Red Aid?}
While the International Relief helps people in accidents, and also helps political exiles. International Red Aid specializes in helping political exiles only.
Now it's the time to fight; the proletariat struggles with capital, the oppressed people struggles with imperialism. Capitalism and imperialism are on one side, the proletariat and the oppressed people on the other. Those two factions are like two armies fighting each other. The revolutionary army followed the flag of the Third International. The counter\-/revolutionary army followed the flag of the rich. In a fight, people being arrested, being injured, being killed is unavoidable. The International Red Aid is like a hospital to care for the wounded, to help those who were arrested, to take care of their elderly and weak parents, their wives and children of those who died in the battle for the revolution.
\subsection{When was the International Red Aid established?}
In 1923, the Third International opened a congress, the association \enquote{exiled for life} and the association of \enquote{old communists} proposed, and the Third International approved the establishment of the International Red Aid. First set up the Headquarters in Russia. Now every country has a branch. (But not yet in Annam).
Russia now has 50,000 branches and 9 million members. All the workers and many peasants had joined that association, either individually, or as a whole. All communists and young communists must join that association.
When it was established, the first three months they had raised 300,000 dong. Four months later, they raised 4,000,000 dong. In Guangdong province, China has only established a cell for 6 months and already has 250,000 members.
Seeing that, we can understand that this International is developing very quickly.
\subsection{How does this international aid in the struggle?}
When revolutionaries are either exiled out, or arrested, or imprisoned, or killed, the International helps in:
\item Politics;
\item Economy;
\item Material;
\item Morale.
\item Political help: if someone is arrested or imprisoned, the International will direct for the local party cells to start marches and protests in solidarity. Just like recently, two Italian revolutionaries were arrested in the US, about to be sentenced to death, not only did the American workers protest, but in any country that has US embassies, the workers opened the weekly congresses and declared: \enquote{If the Government kills those two, the American workers will go on strike, and the world's workers will boycott America.} When the US saw that, they did not dare to touch them.
\item Economical help: whenever revolutionaries are imprisoned, they often eat and drink under terrible conditions, while their wives and children are at home, with no one to take care of. The International sends money to buy food in prison and help family members more or less to avoid poverty. In this way, the captives are relieved from suffering. Or the International can pay to hire a lawyer to appeal against the sentence. Or send clothes and books.
\item Help morale wise: either send people or send letters to visit.
\item Prisoners now know that although they sacrificed for the masses but the people did not forget them, then while in prison, they did not feel depressed and can recover further.
\item People know that although they have to be imprisoned in one place, the revolutionary work is still developing, and there are still people who do it for them.
\subsection{Should the Annam revolution follow this International?}
Undoubtedly. The Annam revolution was also a part of the world revolution. Whoever does revolution in the world is a comrade of the people of Annam.
As comrades, we must go through thick and thin together. What's more, when the people of Annam are struggling with French imperialism, there will surely be many revolutionaries in the future who will have to sacrifice, suffer, and need help from our brothers in the world.