The Road to Revolution by Ho Chi Minh, translated by VietAnon
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\subsection{What is Internationalism?}
Internationalism means that people in the world, of any country, of any people, having the same goal, working together to achieve that goal. Just as imperialists communicate with each other, to supress the weak (France contacted Spain and Japan to take Annam, etc.), capitals communicate with each other to exploit workers (British, American, and French capitalists contacted German capitalists to oppress German workers). Therefore workers from different countries contacted each other to fight against capital (such as the Industrial Workers of the World). We must also contact all the revolutionary parties in the world to fight capitalism and imperialism (such as the Third International).
\subsection{What is the Third International?}
If you want to know what the Third International is, you must first know the First and Second International.
From the 18th century onwards, capital was very prosperous, oppressing workers very harshly. When workers are oppressed, in their rebellious character was to oppose such injustices, through organizing trade unions and staging violent strikes. But most provincial workers only knowing their own, and every national workers only knew of their own country, because of this their overall strength was not very significant.
In 1840, German workers founded an association called The League of The Just. The slogan of that association is \enquote{All men are brothers}. That slogan, though very good, is not true; since the imperialists and counter\-/revolutionary capitalists are enemies of the people, how can they be called brothers?
In 1847, the association was revised into the: \enquote{Communist League} - Mr. Marx and Engels joined that association.
Thanks to them the program and slogans were corrected to: overthrow of the bourgeoisie - establishment of the rule of the proletariat - the construction of a communist world.
\subsection{Were these two associations the First and Second International?}
No. Although there were German and French workers in the two associations, they were few, and their strength was still weak, so they couldn't do anything. They were just an expression that workers from all over the world had to help each other and bridged towards the First International.
In 1862 in the British Capital (London) opened the Great London Exposition; capitalist countries sent workers over to examine the new industrial machines. The workers again met the Russian, German, French and other revolutionaries taking refuge there. The two sides discussed the establishment of a world revolutionary society.
In 1864, (February 28) they established as the First International.
\subsection{What had the First International done?}
Even though there were many leaders of workers from all over the country, this association, but because:
\item People were few,
\item The unions in the countries were still weak,
\item No consensus had been reached, so it only propagated communism but has not done any significant actions.
The disagreement was due to the three opposing ideologies:
\item Proudhonism (France);
\item Bakuninism (Russia);
\item Marxism (Germany) (see the section on revolutionary ideology).
After the failure of the Paris Commune, many members were killed or arrested, so the association gradually disintegrated, until 1874 it was disbanded.
Although the First International only stood for 10 years, the slogan \enquote{Working men of all countries, unite!} and the revolutionary spirit is still alive to this day. Although not able to do many things, but the merits of teaching the workers in the world of revolution was massive.
\subsection{When was the Second International established?}
The First International has ended, just as capital had flourished, worker activism had also prospered. During those 15 years (from 1874 to 1889) in many countries, many new labor parties were established, and each party understood that the workers of different countries could not cease helping each other.
In 1889, representatives of the labor parties met in Paris to form the Second International.
From its inception, to the days of the European War, the congress was held nine times of discussions and decrees:
\item Every country must form a labor party;
\item Every year on May 1, the world's workers go on strike and petition;
\item All workers in the world strive to work only 8 hours a day;
\item Opposition to imperialism;
\item Labor parties must not negotiate with capital;
\item Party members are not allowed to work with capital;
\item If the imperialists have a war, the workers of all countries will go on strike and find a way to take over the government. The 7th issue was discussed in all 9 times the congress was held.
\subsection{Why does the Second International often talk about war?}
Because at that time, capital had turned into imperialism. And imperialism, either often fought each other to gain colonies, or conquering weak countries as colonies. Like:
In 1894, Japan fought against China;
1895, England fought against Egypt;
1896, France fought against Madagascar;
1898, America fought with Spain to take over the Philippines;
1900, Britain fought with South Africa;
1904, Russia against Japan;
1912, the Balkans fought, and so on.
The workers saw this and knew that the imperialists of the world would come ahead to a Great War. So they tried to seek precautions. Unexpectedly, in 1914, when the countries fought, most of the members of the Second International helped imperialism, and the labor parties of every country advised the people to go to war.
\subsection{When was the Third International established?}
Because the activists in the Second International were anti\-/revolutionary and turned out to be hunting hounds for capitalism and imperialism, it was revealed to be counter\-/revolutionary; truly revolutionary people like Mr. Lenin, Mr. Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, etc., consider that International as good as dead and they must establish another International. In 1915 and 1916, the revolutionaries gathered in Switzerland about to establish the Third International, to follow the First International in spirit and stage revolutionary communism.
In 1917, Russia successfully staged their communist revolution.
In 1919, the Third International was established in the Russian capital, Moscow (on March 6th). In the opening of the first congress, there were communist party delegates from 24 countries attending the meeting.
The Declaration of the Third International clearly states that:
\item By any means, the destruction of capitalism must not be reformist as the Second International;
\item By any means, the power must be in the hands of workers and peasants.
\subsection{Since its founding (early 1927), how many times has the Third International been held?}
In 1920, the 2nd Congress was held, with 31 countries attending. The opportunistic leaders of the Second International saw that this association was strong and wanted to intervene to \enquote{jump on the bandwagon}, so the Congress set out a very strict organization; only anyone admitted under the 21 new rules can enter. (See the end of this section).
In 1921, the 3rd Congress. From the time of the Third International, the workers of different countries divided into two factions, the communist faction (the Third International) and the reformist faction (the Second International). Therefore, the combine strength of both decreases; therefore, the Congress decided that when struggling with capital, the two factions must work together and not be divided.
In 1922, the 4th Congress. On the eve of the revolutionary movement cementing in many countries, capitalism was on the verge of death, they founded the Fascist Party fiercely opposed to revolutions. The congress decides how to treat that party.
In 1924, the 5th Congress, up to 61 countries attended.
As opposed to some at the time still mistakenly believe that capitalism will return to it's golden age before the European War, the Congress had clearly shown that prosperity to be a farce; in fact, capital in the world is close to an end, and the revolutionary workers and peasants must be ready to take action.
\subsection{How is the Third International organized?}
\item Every year or every few years, the congress is held once. The Congress has the power to judge all the affairs of the parties in the countries.
\item The Congress appoints a 24 - member Central Committe. This association represents the general assembly. Parties in all countries must follow the orders of the Central Committee.
\item There is the Youth Ministry, to see about youth mobilization; women's ministry, to see the women's advocacy; the Asian - Eastern ministry, to see about the revolution of the colonies in Asia and the East. Propaganda, organization, relief, etc., all have their own ministries.
\item The Third International is a world Communist Party. The parties of all countries are like branches, all must follow the common plans and rules. All the parties cannot do without orders and plans from the Third International.
\subsection{What are the similarities between the First International and the Third International? What is different?}
The First International is different from the Third International.
\item The First International was small, the Third International was big;
\item The First International only discussed theory, the Third International practiced;
\item The First International was not unified, the Third International commanded all communist parties in all countries to follow;
\item The First International only said: \enquote{Working men of all countries, unite!}; the Third International added, \enquote{Workers and oppressed peoples of all countries, unite!}. The First International did not force its members to help the colonists in fightingf imperialism like the Third International.
That is because the circumstances of the two Internationals are different. For instance the First International said little on national oppression, because at that time imperialism was not very developed. As well as, the Third International, being born later, has more experience than the First International.
When it comes to revolutionary ideology, making the world egalitarian, the two Internationals are still the same. Only that the First International could not achieve those goals, but the Third International probably will, thanks to this revolutionary Russia has succeeded to serve as the foundation for the world revolution.
\subsection{What is the difference between the Second International and the Third International?}
The previous Second International was still revolutionary, but because it lacked strict disciplines, the organization was not effective, allowing the reformists to interfere too much; later turning them to counter\-/revolutionary. These two Internationals differ in the following:
The Third International advocated the destruction of capital for a world revolution.
The Second International advocated a concession with capital.
The Third International helped the colonists fight imperialism.
The Second International helped imperialism suppress the colonists (Governor - General Varenne was a member of the Second International).
The Third International teaches the world's proletariat - whatever race, profession, religion - to unite for revolution.
The Second International instigated the people of one country against the people of another, one profession against another.
\subsection{How does the Third International relate to the revolution of Annam?}
As seen in the organization of the Third International, there is a separate ministry, dedicated to researching and helping the revolution in Asia - Far East.
See the slogan of the Third International, not only that \enquote{workers} but also included the sentence \enquote{... and the oppressed people of all countries, unite!}.
See the rule of the Third International in 21 articles, the 8th says: \enquote{Communist parties, especially the French Communist Party... must do their best to help the colonial people to stage revolutions}.
While France was fighting Morocco and Syria, the French Communist Party sacrificed dozens of Party members who were arrested, imprisoned, and fined more than 1 million silver francs for helping those two countries.
See the Russian revolution helping the parties of China, Turkey, Persia, Mongolia.
Again, the plan on the colonial question was made by Lenin himself.
Seeing these things is enough to know that if Annam wants to succeed in its own revolution, it must follow the Third International.